Sunday, March 20, 2022

What is the difference between clipping path mask and retouching?

 What is the difference between clipping path mask and retouching?

These are terms used in digital image editing but they were practiced before desktop computers and applications like Adobe Photoshop were in use..

Clipping path is also a mask. Mask are used many ways in graphic arts and image creation and editing. Mask can be opaque or have transparency, they can have a hard edge or soft edge. Mask can isolate parts of an image. Clipping path mask is typically used to isolate a desired part of an image or object in an image. Mask can reveal or hide(mask).

Retouching is done for many reasons. Repairs in photo images of different causes, stains scratches, then retouching is done for removal or replacement of image elements, these are some applications.

The image project workflow may include both techniques or one. These can be applied destructively or used in a non-destructive manor.

Masking and retouching are practices of image editing used by graphic designer, photographers and other professional visual communicators. Image compositing, portraiture refinement are example of some deliverables.

You have been looking at the result of masking and retouching since you first looked at a book, magazine an advertisement with images or watched TV or a film.

Monday, January 10, 2022

Indicating Italics; Proofreader's Marks


Владислав Артюхов asked,

How italics were indicated for printing in manuscripts before computers have appeared?

Proofreader marks were and are used still to indicate the use of italic type in typesetting for printing.

Before computers a manuscript produced on a typewriter destined to be published, those pages were edited, proofed and marked-up using proofreaders marks.

Indicating italics is done by hand-writing in cursive in the margin the word ital on the same line level, and underlining the word or words to be typeset in italics. This is one application of one of many proofreader’s marks.

Proofreader marks are hand-written in the margin and on the typed page copy. The standard symbols (Proofreader’s Marks) are used to convey instructions to the person typesetting, along with other copy correction mark-up to instruct typesetting of the type-written copy. Mark-up instructions included; alignment, typeface family fonts or font selection, font size and leading, the word spacing and letter spacing and whether to hyphenate were typical instruction for typesetting that are hand written on a manuscript produced with a type-writer.

Although typed pages are not as common today graphic designers performed the process of proofreading, editing, marking up, and copyfitting pages based on typewritten manuscript pages destined for typesetting and print publishing. The designer using proofreading mark’s and indicating copy mark-up instruction is the industry process and functions often called specifying type. 

Specifying type on typewritten pages was a common occurrence in print publishing workflows from the 1880′s to the 1980's.

Below you can see explanation and list of Proofreader’s Marks: